CsPaint  1.0.0
Timeline for Graphics


  • SGI began working on a proprietary library called GL


  • SGI partnered with Microsoft to collaborate on open sourcing GL


  • SGI released OpenGL 1.0
  • Architecture Review Board gains control of the OpenGL API


  • Microsoft released Direct3D 1.0 to compete with OpenGL


  • Khronos Group was formed by Intel, ATI, SGI, and Nvidia
  • Non profit association of companies dedicated to maintaining open standards for vector graphics


  • Microsoft leaves the ARB, dropping their vote on OpenGL


  • OpenGL 2.0 added a programmable pipeline which allows applications to define custom rendering algorithms which execute on the GPU


  • SGI filed Chapter 11
  • OpenGL transferred ownership to the Khronos Group
  • Architecture Review Board dissolved
  • AMD buys ATI, developers of the Radeon graphics hardware
  • AMD wanted to integrate the GPU and CPU = APU
  • Originally AMD was only a CPU vendor competing with Intel


  • OpenGL 3.0 released


  • OpenGL 3.1 released
    • removed fixed function rendering pipeline
  • OpenGL 3.2 released a few months later
    • brought OpenGL back to relevance


  • AMD and Nvidia worked closely with Microsoft so DirectX drivers would be compatible with their newer graphics cards


  • PC graphics cards had 10 times more processing power than the GPU in a standard game console
  • unfortunately the graphics did not look significantly better on the PC and this surprised vendors
  • AMD realized the design of DirectX was affecting performance
  • OpenGL also had too much bloat and the drivers were slow
  • Both of these API’s were single threaded


  • January
    • AMD and DICE release Mantle for Radeon graphics cards with improved performance over OpenGL and Direct3D
  • June
    • Apple releases Metal for iOS, later released for other Apple platforms


  • January
    • DirectX 12 released for Windows 10 only
    • Multi threaded, potentially much better performance than prior versions


  • January
    • AMD had given Mantle to the Khronos Group
    • Vulkan evolved from the components of Mantle
  • August
    • Android 7 release supports Vulkan natively
  • December
    • Unity game engine, announced support for Vulkan


  • Three different other game developers committed to Vulkan


  • MoltenVK library released to support translating Vulkan API calls to Metal for Apple platforms
  • very similar to what Angle did for Direct3D on Windows
  • MoltenVK was open sourced based by the encouragement of Valve, a major video game developer and distributor
  • August
    • GLOVE is a library which translates OpenGL ES to Vulkan API
    • Using MoltenVK and GLOVE together, an OpenGL ES application can use Metal to run on Apple devices
  • June
    • Apple deprecated OpenGL and OpenCL on all platforms
    • Officially supported graphics API on all Apple products is Metal
    • Demand that developers move to Metal seems like an attempt to bind applications to a proprietary technology
    • Application developed using Vulkan and MoltenVK (to access Metal) will be accepted in the the Apple store