CopperSpice API  1.7.4
Unicode

## Classes

class  QByteArray
QByteArray class provides an array of bytes More...

class  QChar32
A 32-bit Unicode code point More...

class  QLocale
Converts between numbers and their string representations in various languages More...

class  QRegularExpression< S >
Provides pattern matching using regular expressions More...

class  QRegularExpressionMatch< S >
Provides the results of matching a QRegularExpression for a given string More...

class  QString16
Provides a UTF-16 string class More...

class  QString8
Provides a UTF-8 string class More...

class  QStringList
Provides a container which is optimized for strings More...

class  QStringParser
Provides functionality for parsing a string More...

class  QStringView< S >
Provides a string view class More...

class  QTextBoundaryFinder
Provides a way of finding Unicode text boundaries in a string More...

class  QTextStream
Provides a convenient interface for reading and writing text More...

## Detailed Description

Unicode is an international standard which supports the majority of human languages. Nearly all software applications and operating systems provide some level of support for Unicode. It is up to each application developer to determine if there software product should support strings in formats other than ASCII and Latin-1.

### Introduction to Unicode

In order to understand Unicode you first need the terminology. A "character set" is nothing more than a collection of symbols. The set does not associate any values to these symbols, it can be thought of as an unordered list of symbols. A good example of a character set is the Latin character set used by English and most European languages. The Latin character set should not be confused with Latin-1 which is a coded character set. A coded character set is the combination of a character set and a character map. A character map associates values to each symbol. A good example of a coded character set is ASCII or ISO-8859-1.

A "code point" is the basic or atomic unit of strings. It is a numerical value defined by the Unicode standard associated with a given symbol. When working with strings it is very important to think in terms of code points and not characters since they are not the same. By definition, a code point value requires a 32-bit integer for storage.

In the Latin-1 coded character set the value for the capital letter A is 41 hex. This is one code point.

In Unicode there is a symbol called "rightwards arrow with corner downwards" and it has a value of 21b4 hex. The symbol looks like and it is also exactly one code point.

The one other definition still required is a "storage unit". This describes the unit of storage required for an encoded code point. In UTF-8 the storage unit is 8-bits. In UTF-16 the storage unit is 16-bits. In UTF-32 the storage unit is 32 bits.

In UTF-8 the Latin-1 capital letter A is represented by one storage unit. In UTF-16 the Latin-1 capital letter A is represented by two storage units since this is the smallest size for any code point in UTF-16. In both character encodings the capital letter A is still exactly one code point.

In UTF-8 the "rightwards arrow with corner downwards" is represented by three storage units. In UTF-16 the "rightwards arrow with corner downwards" is represented by two storage units. In both character encodings this symbol is still exactly one code point.

Both UTF-8 and UTF-16 are variable length encodings. The calculations required to encode a UTF-8 code point are simpler than in UTF-16. In addition, the concept of big-endian versus little-endian does not apply to UTF-8.

The choice by most computer languages to use UTF-16 was made between 1992 and 1995. In more recent years several operating systems as well as the Unicode consortium have established this was a mistake and UTF-8 is truly a far better choice. Developers have realized the majority of the romance languages use a Latin alphabet and most of the symbols can be represented using 8-bits. It does not make sense to use UTF-16 since most of the code points can be represented in one UTF-8 storage unit.

All text in your application should be stored using QString8 as it natively supports UTF-8 which is the preferred Unicode encoding.

### String Classes

The classes listed on this page are useful when working with strings or rendering text.

It is not necessary to know the full extent of Unicode in order to develop a software product which complies with Unicode. However, if your application deals at all with strings or text a solid understanding of the fundamentals of Unicode is strongly advisable.

### Codecs and Streams

All file I/O should be done using QTextStream.

Use QKeyEvent::text() for keyboard input in custom widgets. To translate from other encodings to QString8 you can use QTextCodec.

### Unicode in Depth

The following is a list of documents which cover Unicode in much greater detail.